민족, 인권, 평화에 관한 다원적 통일교육의 인식론

이기범 1
Gi-Beom Lee 1
Author Information & Copyright
1숙명여자대학교 교수
1Professor, Sookmyung Women's University

ⓒ Copyright 2004, Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-ShareAlike License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Oct 8, 2004 ; Revised: Nov 22, 2004 ; Accepted: Dec 3, 2004

Published Online: Dec 31, 2004


통일교육은 분단과 분단 극복 과정에 대한 다양한 인식론으로 구성되는 다원적 담론의 장이다. 본 연구는 통일교육의 더 타당한 방향을 설정하기 위하여, 새로운 인식론을 대표한다고 여겨지는 문화적 상대주의와 보편주의를 검토하고 대안으로 '상호작용적 보편주의'를 제시한다. 문화적 상대주의는 북한 문화를 정당하게 이해하는 한편 남한 사회의 획일성을 성찰하고 다양성을 존중하는 통일교육이 필요하다고 제안한다. 보편주의는 상대주의가 북한 문화와 부정적 관행을 당연시할 수 있다고 경계하여, '민족' 혹은 '인권' 같은 보편적 가치로 통일을 구상하는 교육을 제시한다. 상호작용적 보편주의는 보편성이 절대적인 것으로 인식될 때 초래되는 문제를 우려한다. 대안으로 보편성을 남북한이 더 적절한 통일 방안을 찾아가는 의사소통 과정에서 '공통 참조점'으로 인식하고, '평화'를 공통 참조점으로 활용할 것을 제안한다. 본 연구는 이 논의를 통해 적절한 통일의 개념과 과정이 모색되도록 통일교육과 평화교육이 상호 수렴될 수 있는 방안을 제시한다.


Unification education is a social discourse in which epistemological theories and practical theories are diverging and converging. Epistemological theories are to allow us to examine the causes and impacts of the division of the Korean peninsula and the ways to overcome it. Practical theories are to suggest the ways to us to intervene in the process of the unification of two Koreas. Under the changing social milieu, unification education must grow out of the dogmatism that defines unification as the imperative. Instead it is inspired to construct the meanings and values which can be shared by two Koreas and which can democratically guide the unification process. As unification education wants new paradigm, this paper intends to discuss three models of epistemological and practical theories in unification education, suggesting the viable model.

The first model revolves around cultural relativism, demanding to understand the North Korean culture from their standpoint and using their cultural pattern to reflect self-critically on our own ways, for example, to oppress the diversity. The second model is grounded on universal ism and argues that cultural relativism runs the risk of approving the negative convention embedded in the North Korean culture. Nationality or human rights is provided as "universal values" by which unification process must be governed. Inasmuch as universalism conspires to define those values as the paradigmatic case of the experiences of the Koreans, it comes to dismiss the differences and diversity, establishing and justifying some form of oppression and discrimination. As an alternative, this paper opts for interactive universalism where peace regulates, not as a universal value but as a common reference point, the process of communicative interaction between two Korean societies. Thanks to communication, two Koreas are expected to construct the universalizable meanings and values by which unification process can be explored. Epistemological and practical horizon of interactive universalism promotes the convergence of peace education and unification education.

Keywords: 통일교육; 민족교육; 인권교육; 평화교육; 문화적 상대주의; 보편주의; 상호작용적 보편주의
Keywords: social discourse; cultural relativism; universalism; interactive universalism; nationality; human rights; peace