소집단 토의 중심의 "쟁점중심 수업모형" 탐색
Received: Oct 15, 2003 ; Revised: Nov 22, 2003 ; Accepted: Dec 4, 2003
Published Online: Dec 31, 2003
본 연구의 목적은 고등학교 사회과 교육에서 사회적 쟁점을 교수-학습할 때 수업 목표 달성을 위한 효과적인 모형을 개발하는 데 있다. 이를 위해 Oliver와 Shaver의 법리 모형, Sweeney와 Parsons의 사회적 쟁점 모형, Johnson과 Johnson의 Pro-Con 모형, 차경수 모형 등을 분석하여 사회과교육 전공학자 및 사회과 교사 3인 등과 협의한 후 쟁점중심 수업모형을 개발하였다. 본 연구에서 구안한 ‘쟁점중심 수업모형’은 문제 제기, 쟁점 자료 선정 및 검토, 가치 갈등 인식, 소집단 토의, 전체 발표, 반성 및 종합의 6단계로 구성된다. 쟁점중심 수업모형은 다음과 같은 의의를 지닌다. 첫째, 교실 수업에서 단편적인 사실적 지식만을 강조하기보다는 사회적 쟁점의 본질을 탐색하고 쟁점의 해결 절차와 과정을 학습함으로써 비판적 사고 능력을 신장시켜 줄 것이다. 둘째, 쟁점중심 수업에 학습자들이 적극적으로 참여함으로써, 교과에 대한 흥미 및 학습동기, 교우간의 협동적 태도, 교사에 대한 호의적 태도 등이 더욱 긍정적인 방향으로 영향을 받을 것이다.
The aim of this study is to design more effective model for the Issues-Centered Instruction(ICI) when teaching and learning social issues. For this, the ICI model is made, which is based on Oliver and Shaver’s jurisprudential model, Sweeney and Parsons’ social issue model, Johnson and Johnson’s Pro-Con model, Cha Kyong Soo’s model and etc.
This ICI model is composed of six steps- problem posing, selection and examination of issues, awareness of value conflicts, small-group discussion, whole-class presentation, reflection and synthesis.
The first step is problem posing phase, which examines the background, theories or opinions of issues.
The second step is the selection and examination of issues so that learners may prepare the discussion through evaluation validity and source of the social issues, distinguishing facts and value problems.
The third step is awareness of value conflicts, recognizing different values and choosing values conflicting in problematic situation. When recognizing value conflicts, it is important that learners have to check related facts and values, to conform value-conflict problems and verify value resources.
The fourth step is small-group discussion. In this phase, it is considered that learners should not force their own insistence to others and teachers should introduce order and tips for the discussion. After small-group discussion, representatives of each group prepare the whole-class presentation swiftly.
The fifth step is a whole-class presentation, announcing pros and cons on the social issues. Also, it should be done quickly and orderly by moderator. Learners ask each representative some questions related with small-group discussion and each representative answers in order.
The sixth step, the last phase of the ICI model, is the reflection and synthesis sleaded by teachers. That means，a teacher reviews the whole steps(problem posing, selection and examination of issues, awareness of value conflicts, small-group discussion，whole-class presentation, rellection and synthesis) and summarizes contents about issues. And then，a teacher announces next class topic.
The followings are the significance of the ICI model.
First，it will help learners develop critical thinking by studying the essence and problem-solving process of social issues rather than emphasizing fragmentary knowledge.
Second, some factors may be influenced to more affirmative direction when learners participate actively in the ICI. Those factors are the interest for subject, learning motivation, cooperative attitude between classmates and favorable attitude for teachers.
Third, this model would be expected to contribute to design new class models and to stimulate tlie substantial encouragement by narrowing gap between theory and reality.
In order to apply this ICI model to the class，it is necessary that back-up studies, development of variable teaching materials and teacher-training programs for the effective ICI be studied.